Serious mental illness such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder carry heavy healthcare and economic burdens.

Schizophrenia Prevalence

Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic disorder that affects up to 2 million people in the U.S.

Individuals with Schizophrenia Have a High Burden of Illness

Over half of patients with schizophrenia experience overlapping behavioral and/or mental health disorders.

Current Treatment Options

For over 60 years, the basis of pharmacologic therapy for serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia, has not changed.

Typical (first-generation) antipsychotics:
  • Prominent antagonism at D2 receptors
  • Risk of adverse effects such as hyperprolactinemia and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), including tardive dyskinesia, acute dystonias, parkinsonism, and akathisia
Atypical (second-generation) antipsychotics:
  • Antagonism or partial agonism at D2 receptors
  • Antagonism at 5HT2A receptors
  • Lower overall risk for hyperprolactinemia and EPS
  • Off-target effects at adrenergic, cholinergic, and histaminergic receptors
  • Differentially increased risk for cardiometabolic symptoms, including weight gain and diabetes

Looking Ahead to New Treatment Targets